Resources

Inflammation

Below are abstracts and links to a selection of peer reviewed scientific publications on MUFA and control of healthy levels of inflammation.

1. Galland, L. (2010). Diet and inflammation. Nutrition in Clinical Practice : Official Publication of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 25(6), 634–640.

ABSTRACT

The emerging role of chronic inflammation in the major degenerative diseases of modern society has stimulated research into the influence of nutrition and dietary patterns on inflammatory indices. Most human studies have correlated analyses of habitual dietary intake as determined by a food frequency questionnaire or 24-hour recall with systemic markers of inflammation like high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HS-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). An occasional study also includes nutrition analysis of blood components. There have been several controlled interventions which evaluated the effect of a change in dietary pattern or of single foods on inflammatory markers in defined populations. Most studies reveal a modest effect of dietary composition on some inflammatory markers in free-living adults, although different markers do not vary in unison. Significant dietary influences have been established for glycemic index (GI) and load (GL), fiber, fatty acid composition, magnesium, carotenoids, and flavonoids. A traditional Mediterranean dietary pattern, which typically has a high ratio of monounsaturated (MUFA) to saturated (SFA) fats and ω-3 to ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFAs) and supplies an abundance of fruits, vegetables, legumes, and grains, has shown anti-inflammatory effects when compared with typical North American and Northern European dietary patterns in most observational and interventional studies and may become the diet of choice for diminishing chronic inflammation in clinical practice.

2. Kien, C. L., Crain, K. I., Bunn, J. Y., Fukagawa, N. K., & Poynter, M. E. (2013). Substituting dietary monounsaturated fat for saturated fat lowers inflammasome activation observed on a high saturated fat dietThe FASEB Journal, 27(1_MeetingAbstracts), 1–2.

ABSTRACT

Altered lipid homeostasis (obesity) is linked to inflammation and defective insulin signaling. In the presence of palmitic acid (PA), but not oleic acid (OA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages activate the NLRP3 inflammasome, secreting augmented levels of Interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 (Nat Immunol12:408). We hypothesized that lowering the PA/OA ratio of the PA-rich, Western Diet would alter cytokine secretion from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) harvested from 14 fasted, young adults (8 men/6 women), enrolled in a randomized, double-masked, cross-over trial comparing two 3-week diets: (1) high PA (HPA), with a fatty acid pattern resembling their habitual diet; (2) low PA/high OA (HOA). Immediately after collection, PBMC were stimulated with 1 ng/ml LPS for 24 hr, and cytokines were measured. Log (base 10) transformed data, corrected for baseline values on a low fat diet, revealed that IL-1β (P = 0.029), IL-18 (P = 0.037), IL-10 (P = 0.02), and Tumor Necrosis Factor-1α, (P = 0.039) were higher during HPA, compared to HOA. These data suggest that, in healthy adults, the higher than recommended PA intake of the Western Diet facilitates augmented secretion of several cytokines, including those regulated by inflammasome activation.